Note: iCalendar is an IETF standard (RFC 5545) and not to be confused with Apple iCal.
Note: This article explains how to subscribe to and publish iCalendar feeds, not how to export and import iCalendar files, which would be of limited use.
Doodle to Outlook 2013/2016
With your browser, go to https://doodle.com/settings/calendars and copy the link from the “Doodle calendar feed (ics)” section, e.g., http://doodle.com/ics/mydoodle/c441dlaaezup2c1e78tylnjulce5c5xs.ics.
In Outlook 2013/2016, choose Open Calendar > From the Internet..., paste the link copied above, and click OK.